Czech Language Unlocked: From Former Bohemia to Current Times

February 12, 2024
Czech Language Unlocked: From Former Bohemia to Current Times

What is the Czech Republic known for?

To a typical person on the street, the answer might not be a lot. But for literature lovers, this quaint, landlocked country is probably more known by its former name: Bohemia, a name that excludes the image of exoticism and intrigue.

So let’s delve into this fascinating country and its language, Czech: exploring its historical roots, distribution, linguistic diversity within the country and beyond, and its unique features, concluding with an invitation to experience the language's beauty firsthand through Czech language translation.

Historical Background of the Czech Language

Tracing its origins back to the early West Slavic period, Czech distinguishes itself through a series of linguistic evolutions and historical milestones. It emerged from common West Slavic dialects, gradually differentiating itself from Polish and Slovak between the 10th and 12th centuries. Innovations such as the palatalization of velar ch > š and the disappearance of years, a hallmark of Slavic languages, played a crucial role in its development.

The Czech language, known historically as Bohemian, underwent significant changes during the Middle Ages, notably influenced by the Old Church Slavonic introduced by monks Cyril and Methodius in the 9th century. The language's evolution was intertwined with socio-political shifts, including the rise of Czech culture under Charles IV and the tumultuous Hussite wars.

However, it faced challenges during the Habsburg rule, with Germany gaining prominence. The 19th-century Czech National Revival marked a turning point, re-establishing Czech as a language of cultural and national identity, leading to its official status in the newly formed Czechoslovak Republic in 1918.

Where Is the Czech Language Spoken?

Czech is the official language of the Czech Republic, nestled in the heart of Central Europe. Beyond its borders, diaspora communities in neighboring countries and across the globe continue to keep the language alive, making it a vibrant component of the Czech heritage worldwide.

Around the world, it’s spoken by around 11 million people, with most of its users concentrated in the homeland. Apart from the Czech Republic, the language is also spoken around nearby territories, such as Slovakia.

Languages Spoken in the Czech Republic

The Czech Republic is a linguistically diverse country, reflecting its complex history and contemporary global connections. Besides Czech, several languages are spoken within its territory, each with its significance:


Reflecting historical ties and minority communities within the Czech Republic, German maintains a presence, especially in regions bordering Germany. It’s considered a language in some minor 


In areas close to the Polish border, particularly in Silesia, Polish is spoken among the Polish minority, highlighting the region's multicultural heritage.


Hungarian speakers, though fewer, contribute to the linguistic mosaic, particularly in communities with historical connections to Hungary.


The recent decades have seen an increase in Ukrainian speakers, owing to migration and the shared Slavic linguistic heritage.


Vietnamese, representing one of the largest immigrant communities in the Czech Republic, adds to the country's linguistic and cultural diversity. It’s also considered a minority language within the region.


Belarusian speakers, though a smaller group, exemplify the rich tapestry of languages spoken by the Czech Republic's residents, further enriching its cultural diversity.

Linguistic Features and Characteristics

The Czech language stands out for its complex grammar, phonetic diversity, and rich vocabulary, drawing comparisons and contrasts with other Slavic languages:

Czech Language Family

Czech is known for its complex phonology and grammatical structure, including a challenging case system and a distinction between long and short vowels. Its stress on the first syllable and the retention of Slavic nasal sounds now evolved into pure vowels, are notable features.

As a West Slavic language, Czech shares its roots with Polish, Slovak, and Sorbian, forming a distinct yet interconnected linguistic family within the Indo-European language group.

Phonology and Grammar

Czech's phonological system is marked by a rich array of sounds, including distinctions between long and short vowels and a challenging consonant system. Its grammar is known for its seven-case system for nouns and adjectives, complex verb conjugations, and the use of aspect to convey the completeness of an action.

Czech Dialects

As with most languages, Czech also can be subdivided into dialects. These categories are mainly named after the entities that the country historically consists of. Here’s a rundown for every major dialect in Czech:

  • Bohemian Dialect: Found in the capital, Prague, and in the general Bohemian regions, which can be further categorized into the Central, West, and East versions. 

  • Moravian Dialect: commonly used in Vysočina, Brno, and Olomouc regions of the Czech Republic. It can also be divided into 3 distinct subtypes: Eastern Moravian (Moravian-Slovak), Central Moravian (Hanakian) and Silesian (Lach).

  • Mixed areas: can be located in communities with strong German ancestry, particularly after World War II. It’s named as such because these areas also have South Slovakian Hungarians, Gypsies, Volhynian Czechs, or volunteer settlers from various parts of the then Czechoslovakia, creating their specific version of the Czech language, depending on where they are geographically closest to.

Similarities to Other Languages

Czech's closest relative is Slovak, with mutual intelligibility reflecting their shared history and cultural ties. It’s to the point that they can be considered each other’s dialects, though claiming this in each respective country might be the cause of controversy and disagreements for locals.

It also shares similarities with Polish and, to a lesser extent, with other Slavic languages, demonstrating the intertwined nature of the Slavic linguistic landscape.

Embrace the Beauty of the Czech Language With Tomedes

Discovering the Czech language is more than understanding a means of communication; it's an exploration of a culture steeped in history, tradition, and innovation. Tomedes invites clients and professionals alike to delve into the majesty of the Czech language, offering insights into its rich heritage, complex structure, and the vibrant world it opens up for those willing to learn. Whether you're seeking translation services or looking to learn Czech, embracing this Slavic language offers a unique perspective on the Czech Republic's captivating history and cultural legacy.

By Raphaella Funelas

Raphaella Funelas is a creative writer who graduated from the University of the Philippines Diliman with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English Studies, specializing in Language. She likes learning about anything new in any field, and has pursued that interest through a writing career. She always has an ear on the ground for any exciting topics, and an enthusiasm to share any newfound knowledge through her words.



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